上海体育学院学报

2017, (01) 55-60

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不同类型运动对骨密度影响的研究进展
Research Development of the Effects of Physical Activities on Bone Mineral Density

徐锋鹏;胡敏;黄俊豪;林文弢
XU Fengpeng; HU Min; HUANG Junhao; LIN Wentao

摘要(Abstract):

运动影响骨密度(BMD)的机制主要靠机械外力(肌肉收缩和地面反冲击力)直接作用而产生。关于两者对BMD的影响还没有定论,一般认为两者均有促进骨骼生长的作用。骨骼对作用于其上的一系列力学信号产生反应,如应变幅度、应变率、应变分布、应变梯度、频率、持续时间、加速、间歇等。在相同应变幅度下,爆发力项目对BMD提升的效果优于普通抗阻运动,高冲击性/临时冲击性活动对BMD提升的效果优于低冲击性活动。一定数量负荷循环可促进骨骼生长,长时间刺激使骨骼敏感度下降,当中有间歇可以增加成骨效应。由于运动时间长、运动量大等,耐力项目可引起睾酮/皮质醇比值降低、女性雌激素下降而对BMD的影响不太明显。不同类型的混合运动方案(包含抗阻训练和冲击性活动)对提升BMD的效果比单一运动好。不同频率的振动对BMD的影响值得深入研究。
Mechanical forces that act on bone are generated from impact with the ground (ground-reaction forces) and from skeletal muscle contractions (muscle forces or muscle-joint forces), but the relative importance of these two sources has not been elucidated yet. Both muscle-joint forces and gravitational forces seem to be able to induce bone adaptation independently. Bone is sensitive to a variety of mechanical parameters including, but certainly not limited to, strain magnitude, strain rate, strain gradient, strain frequency, duration, acceleration, or rest intervals. Under the same strain magnitude, power training is more effective than strength training, and high impact/odd impact activity is more effective than low impact activity in augmenting BMD. A few loading cycles seem sufficient for bone accretion; while a long duration seems to make bone less sensitive. And a rest period after each loading cycle can increase the osteogenic response. Endurance activities seem to be beneficial to a less degree at increasing BMD due to sustained, long duration exercises which may be related to lower Testosterone/Cortisone ratio or female Estrogen levels. Combined protocols integrating odd- or high-impact exercise with resistance exercise are more effective in increasing BMD than single type exercises. The effect of vibration of certain frequency on BMD needs to be studied in the future.

关键词(KeyWords): 运动;肌肉收缩力;地面反作用力;应变幅度;应变率;骨密度
physical activities;muscle joint force;ground reaction force;stain magnitude;strain rate;bone mineral density(BMD)

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基金项目(Foundation): 广东省教育厅创新强校资助项目(2014KTSCX122)

作者(Author): 徐锋鹏;胡敏;黄俊豪;林文弢
XU Fengpeng; HU Min; HUANG Junhao; LIN Wentao

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